Health
Body Systems Project


Purpose: To learn and teach others about the eleven systems of the human body.

Directions: Work in groups of two to research information about your assigned system of the body. You will create a fact sheet with the important information about the system of the body and also prepare a 4-6 minute presentation to teach the class. Each person should have equal involvement in research and in the presentation.

Steps:
  1. Form a group and select a system of the body:
  2. Research and record information about both the anatomy and physiology of your assigned system of the body.
    1. Identify key vocabulary terms and concepts
    2. Describe the anatomy or structure of the system
    3. Explain the function or physiology of the system
    4. Identify and explain problems that can occur.
    5. Include any interesting facts or information you find.
  3. Organize information and create a fact sheet to post on the Health Class Wikispace referencing important information.
  4. Be sure to include a Works Cited (standard MLA formatting) so we know where you found your information.
  5. Create a presentation to teach the class about your body system. You will be expected to include appropriate visuals to help clarify the information. Be creative!

Grading:
You will be graded on the completeness of information in your fact sheet and your presentation.

Fact sheet published on the Wiki due: Monday, February 9th
Works Cited (separate sheet) due: Tues, and Wed. February 10 & 11th
Outline of presentation due: Tues, and Wed. February 10 & 11th
Presentations due: Tues, and Wed. February 10 & 11th


Skeletal System - Yaryna & Gunhus

external image skeletalchart2.jpg

KEY VOCABULARY:
1. Skeletal System-
the combination of your joints and connecting tissues.
2. Periosteum- the first layer of your bone.
3. Compact Bone- second layer of your bone.
4. Spongy Bone- third layer of your bone.
5. Fracture- a break in a bone.
6. Dislocation- when the end of a bone is pushed out of its joint.
7. Sprain- the result of stretching or tearing the ligaments at a joint.
8. Bone- strongest material in the body; makes up the skeletal system.
9. Tendon- connective tissue that attaches muscles to bones.
10. Ligament- connective tissue that connects bones to one another.
11. Bone Marrow- material inside bones at which blood cells are made and stored.
12. Cartilage- fiberous material that is strong enough to support weight but is very flexible.
13. Joint- places at which bones come close to other bones.

external image skeletal-system.jpg

KEY CONCEPTS:
1. The skeleton is a framework of bone and cartilage that supports and protects the internal organs, allows for movement, stores minerals and fat, and produces red blood cells.
2. The shaft of long bones is filled with a fatty yellow marrow. The spongy bone of some long bones in adults is filled with red marrow.
3. The structural unit of the bone is called an osteon.
4. Bone growth is stimulated by growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland.
5. Osteoblasts deposit new bone and osteoclasts break down existing bone.

SKELETAL SYSTEM/ANATOMY STRUCTURE:
1. It is the framework of the body.
2. It provides protection for vital organs.
3. It provides a place for muscles to attach onto causing those body parts to move.
4. It contains tissues with calcium in it and releases them into the blood stream when needed.
5. It is separated into two parts: the axial skeleton, which includes the skull, hyoid bone, the spine, the sternum and the ribs, and the appendicular skeleton which contains arms, shoulder, hips, thighs, knees, legs and feet.

FUNCTION OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM:
1. Support- weight of the muscles and internal organs.
2. Protection- delicate internal organs.
3. Helping in movement- act as levers and anchors for muscles.
4. Storage of minerals- calcium is stored within the bones and put into the blood stream when needed.
5. Production of red blood cells- produced in red marrow of bones.
6. Chemical energy storage- yellow marrow consist of adipose cells which are fat cells that contain chemical energy.

PROBLEMS THAT CAN OCCUR:
1. Scoliosis-
the vertebral column develops an abnormal curvature, so that one hip or shoulder is lower than the other.
2. Bursitis- the inflamation of a bursa and is usually due to excessive stress on the joint.
3. Arthritis- the inflamation of a joint of joints.
4. Osteoporosis- when you lose bone tissue and it becomes filled with soft tissue. As a result, the bones become weaker and are more easily fractured and broken.

external image 1929007337.jpg

INTERESTING FACTS:
1. A baby is born with more bones than an adult, some of the in the spine and skull blend together as you get older.
2. The hyoid bone is in your throat and is not connected to any other bones.
3. The bone most frequently broken is the clavicle or collar bone.
4. The skeletal system is composed of about 3/4 water
5. The human body has 230 movable and semi-movable joints.


Nervous System - Andrew & Challen
What it Does:

The single goal of central nervous system is to maintain Homeostasis. It accomplishes this by controlling and instructing the processes of the other bodily systems.


Major Organs:


Brain

Spinal cord

Pictures:

external image human-nervous-system.png
external image nervous-system.jpg


Diseases and Conditions:

Term

Definition

Cause

Effect

Bell's Palsy
A form of Neuritis that involves paralysis of the facial nerve causing weakness of the muscles of one side of the face and an inability to close the eye.
Unknown.
(Recovery may occur spontaneously.)
Paralysis of the facial nerve;
weakness of the muscles of one side of the face;
may result in inability to close the eye.
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(In some cases the patient's hearing may also be affected in such a way that sounds seem to him/her to be abnormally loud. Loss of taste sensation may also occur.)
Cerebal Palsy
A nonprogressive disorder of movement resulting from damage to the brain before, during, or immediately after birth.
Cerebal Palsy is attributed to damage to the brain, generally occuring before, during, or immediately after birth.
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It is often associated with other neurological and mental problems.There are many causes including birth injury, hypoxia, hypoglycaemia, jaundice and infection.
The most common disability is a spastic paralysis.
Sensation is often affected, leading to a lack of balance, and intelligence, posture and speech are frequently impaired. Contractures of the limbs may cause fixed abnormalities.
Other associated features include epilepsy, visual impairment, squint, reduced hearing, and behavioural problems.
Motor Neurone Disease
A progressive degenerative disease of the motor system occurring in middle age and causing muscle weakness and wasting.
Some forms of Motor Neurone Disease are inherited.
Motor Neurone disease primarily affects the cells of the anterior horn of the spinal cord, the motor nuclei in the brainstem, and the corticospinal fibres.
Multiple Sclerosis
A chronic disease of the nervous system that can affect young and middle-aged adults.
The course of this illness usually involves recurrent relapses followed by remissions, but some patients experience a chronic progressive course.
The myelin sheaths surrounding nerves in the brain and spinal cord are damaged, which affects the function of the nerves involved.
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The underlying cause of the nerve damage remains unknown.

Multiple Scerosis affects different parts of the brain and spinal cord, resulting in typically scattered symptoms.
These can include:
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Unsteady gait and shaky movement of the limbs (ataxia);
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Rapid involuntary movements of the eyes (nystagmus);
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Defects in speech pronunciation (dysarthria);
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Spastic weakness and retrobulbar neuritis (= inflammation of the optic nerve).

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME)
A condition characterized by extreme disabling fatigue that has lasted for at least six months, is made worse by physical or mental exertion, does not resolve with bed rest, and cannot be attributed to other disorders.
Unknown.
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Often occurs as a sequel to such viral infections as glandular fever.

Extreme disabling fatigue that has lasted for at least six months, is made worse by physical or mental exertion, does not resolve with bed rest, and cannot be attributed to other disorders.
The fatigue is accompanied by at least some of the following:
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Muscle pain or weakness;
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Poor co-ordination;
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Joint pain;
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Sore throat;
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Slight fever;
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Painful lymph nodes in the neck and armpits;
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Depression;
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Inability to concentrate;
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General malaise.

Neuralgia

Maybe due to previous attack of shingles (Postherpetic Neuralgia).
A severe burning or stabbing pain often following the course of a nerve.
Neuritis
A disease of the peripheral nerves showing the pathological changes of inflammation.
(This term may also be less precisely used to refer to any disease of the peripheral nerves, usually causing weakness and numbness.)

Inflammation of the nerves, which may be painful.
Parkinson's Disease
Degenerative disease process (associated with aging) that affects the basal ganglia of the brain.
Associated with a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine.
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Also associated with aging.
Tremor, rigidity and poverty of spontaneous movements.
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The commonest symptom is tremor, which often affects one hand, spreading first to the leg on the same side then to the other limbs. It is most profound in resting limbs, interfering with such actions as holding a cup.
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The patient has an expressionless face, an unmodulated voice, an increasing tendency to stoop, and a shuffling walk.
Sciatica
A common condition arising from compression of, or damage to, a nerve or nerve root.
Usually caused by degeneration of an intervertebral disc, which protrudes laterally to compress a lower lumbar or an upper sacral spinal nerve root.The onset may be sudden, brought on by an awkward lifting or twisting movement.
Pain felt down the back and outer side of the thigh, leg, and foot. The back is stiff and painful. There may be numbness and weakness in the leg.

Vocabulary:
  • Homeostasis: The ability or tendency of an organism or cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes.
  • Peripheral nerves: The part of the vertebrate nervous system constituting the nerves outside the central nervous system and including the cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
  • Sensory nerves: are nerves that receive sensory stimuli, such as how something feels and if it is painful. They are made up of nerve fibers, called sensory fibers (mechanoreceptor fibers sense body movement and pressure placed against the body, and nociceptor fibers sense tissue injury).
  • Neurons: Any of the impulse-conducting cells that constitute the brain, spinal column, and nerves, consisting of a nucleated cell body with one or more dendrites and a single axon. Also called nerve cell.

Did You Know?

  • Impulses can travel through your brain at 350 feet per second!
  • The total surface area of the human brain is about 25, 000 square cm!
  • As we get older, the brain loses almost one gram per year!



  • Muscular System - Faith & Kana
  • Key Vocabulary

  • Skeletal Muscle: A skeletal muscle links two bones across its connecting joint.
  • Smooth Muscle: Smooth muscle is made of single, spindle-shaped cells. It gets its name because no striations are visible in them.
  • Cardiac Muscle: It differs from both skeletal muscle and smooth muscle in that its cells branch and are joined to one another via intercalated disks
  • Tendons: connect skeletal muscles to the bones the muscles will move. Tendons are both strong and flexible and are highly resistant to tears and breakage.
  • ligament: the fibrous material that connects two bones that are moved via skeletal muscles. Ligaments provide stability for the bones both during movement by the skeletal muscles and during rest.
  • Adipose tissue: a connective tissue that stores fat and cushions joints. It is important in protecting joints during strained skeletal-muscle contractions, such as in sports and other strenuous exercise.
  • Problems:
  • strain: caused by overworking a muscle or group of muscles and may have several degrees of severity.
  • cramp: results when a muscle does not relax.
  • bruise can be caused by a direct blow to the area or may appear in the area of a more serious injuryA skeletal muscle links two bones across its connecting joint.

  • Structure:


  • 8946.jpeg


  • The muscular system is a complex collection of tissues, each with a different purpose.

  • Function:
  • Your body has over 600 major muscles that need energy from food to produce all the movements your body makes
  • Facts:
  • your muscles are so strong that if all the muscles in your body pulled together in one direction they could lift 25 tons


  • Your muscles produce large amounts of heat. One estimate says enough heat is produced to boil a quart of water for an hour!Eye muscles are the busiest muscles in the body. Scientists estimate they may move more than 100,000 times a day You have over 30 facial muscles which create looks like surprise, happiness, sadness, and frowning.


  • 40% of your body weight is in muscles.
  • Without muscles, you wouldn't be alive for very long
  • The cells that make up muscles contract and then relax back to original size
  • You have over 630 muscles that move you. Muscles can't push. They pull.
Digestive System- Kestin and Saori:
  • Key Vocabulary:
  • Digestion: the process where food is broken down
  • Alimentary Canal (aka Digestive Tract): A lined tube included in the digestive system where food goes through, digestion happens and wastes are able to exit.
  • Gallbladder: A relatively small, non-vital organ under the liver which holds bile that is made by the liver.
  • Saliva: A liquid that is produced by the salivary glands that aids in the moistening of starches before entering the digestive tract.
  • Esophagus: A 10-foot long tube located in the digestive tract that moves food from the mouth to the stomach
  • Peristalsis: A wave-like motion in the esophagus that moves food easily into the stomach
  • Liver: A part of the body that filters bacteria and toxins out of the body


  • external image moz-screenshot.jpgexternal image digestion_good2.jpg
  • Stucture/Anatomy: The structure of the digestive system includes the mouth, sailvary glands, tongue, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and the large intestine.


  • Function:
  • -chemically and physically breaks down food that enters the digestive system into smaller pieces
  • -allows digested food to transfer from the alimentary canal into the circulatory system by the process of absorption
  • -removes waste and food that has not been broken down all the way from the body


  • external image 19223.jpg


  • Problems of the Digestive System:
  • Indigestion and Heartburn: Indigestion occurs when the body is unable to digest food properly. Heartburn happens when food is regurgitated to the esophagus, which causes a burning sensation in the throat.
  • Ulcers:Ulcers are tiny holes in the gastrointestinal tract that are not cancerous, but can still cause health problems.
  • Cirrohsis of the Liver: This condition happens when the liver starts to fail, which restricts it from filtering out the toxins in the body.
  • Gallstones: These small, pebble-like substances form in the gallbladder when there is too much bacteria in the system.Gallstones can cause problems with toxins exiting the body.
  • Esophagitis: This occurs when the esophagus becomes inflamed, making it hard to swallow foods.


  • Prevention:
  • -eating regularly and consuming proper foods for your body
  • -lowering alcohol consumption
  • -not smoking
  • -lowering intake of aspirin and other drugs


  • Facts:

    • We make 1 to 3 pints of saliva per day.
    • To digest a glass of milk through the body, it requires the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, gallbladder, pancreas and liver.
    • In the mouth, food is either cooled or warmed to a more suitable temperature.
    • The liver performs more than 500 functions
    • Food stays in our stomach for 2 to 3 hours.

Immune System - Kathryn & Moeko
immune_system.PNG
1.Vocabulary

Immune system: works collectively to fight off intruders in your body.
Natural immunity: Your body has an natural opposition to certain diseases
Acquired immunity: the body adapts to respond to certain invaders and then can remember who the intruders were so next time they are ready to attack

2. Structure
Immune system organs have to do with the growth, development, and operation of lymphocytes.
Lymphocites: white cells that are the main operatives of the immune system.
Lymphoid organs: bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils and adenoids, appendix, and clumps of lymphoid tissue in the small intestine(aka Peyer’s patches), and the blood and lymphatic vessels that carry the lymphocytes to and from other structures can also be considered lymphoid organs.
Immune cells, like blood cells, are produced in the bone marrow.
Phagocytes-large cell and particle-devouring white cells
Lymphocites 2 classes- B and T.
B-complete maturation in the bone marrow
T-migrate to the thymus t
here they multiply and mature into cells capable of producing immune response-. In a process referred to as T cell "education," T cells in the thymus learn to distinguish between your body’s cells and foreign cell
T&B- travel widely and continuously throughout the body. They use the blood circulation and lymphatic vessels to travel throughout the body.
Lymph nodes- where the cells congregate in the body

3. Function
Your intestines help by eliminating foreign cells through excrement.
The body swells and has inflammation when a disease gets in in an effort to get rid of it

4. Disease
· Immune Deficiency Conditions
· SCID
· AIDS
· Allergies (food, drug, insect sting, particular substance)
· Anaphylaxis
· Asthma
· Autoimmune Diseases
· Chediak-Higashi Syndrome
· Common Variable Immunodeficiency
· Hay Fever
· Hives
· HTLV
· Hyper-IgE Syndrome
· Hyper-IgM Syndrome
· Primary Immune Deficiency
· Selective IgA Deficiency
· Skin allergies
· X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia
5. Fun Facts
1. Getting less sleep damages your immune system
2. Laughing is good for your immune system.
3. Mental stress damages your immune system.
4. Dieting harms your immune system.
5.Massages increase your immune system's protection ability.
6. Too much sun harms your immune system.
lymphatic_system.gif

Circulatory System- Annabelle & Nao
heart_diagram.jpg
heart diagram

1. Vocabulary
    • Heart: it is the muscular pump which transports blood to the rest of your body
    • Arteries: they are the largest blood vessels in your body which can withstand a lot of pressure because it carries a huge amount of oxygenated blood throughout the body
    • Veins: this takes blood back to the heart to re-oxygenate, they are thinner in structure because they have valves to control the blood flow
    • Capillaries: they are the smallest blood vessels in the body that are able to transfer nutrients, gases, and wastes between blood and tissues; they carry blood to the arteries, which are transferred to the cells in your body, which are then transported to the veins
2. Structure
    • The structure of the circulatory system is made of the heart, blood vessels, and veins.
3.Function
    • The circulatory system is designed to be the body's transport system for continually supplying blood for the body.
    • It also helps to transport heat throughout the body.
    • It helps stabilize the pH and ionic concentration of the body fluids.
    • The circulatory system transports other wastes from cells.
4. Possible Problems
    • Anemia: This happens when your body does not have enough red blood cells. One way to prevent Anemia is to have plenty of iron in your daily diet.
    • Leukemia: It is a type of cancer when your body cannot control the growth of white blood cells which overwhelm the body. The over production of white blood cells result in a lowered defense to infections.
    • Hemophilia: Hemophilia is a disease when the blood cannot clot properly and when the body suffers a cut, the cut bleeds excessively. This is fatal to persons with Hemophilia and can be treated by medicine prescribed by your doctor.
    • Arteriosclerosis: This is when some arteries become hardened and obstructed which stops the blood flow eventually in your body. An example of this happening would be a heart attack.
    • Stroke: This occurs when the blood flow to one section of the brain is severely restrictied. Common causes are blood clots arteriosclerosis, and untreated high blood pressure.
    • High blood pressure: is when you have lack of sleep or too much stress in your life. It is also called hypertension and can be treated by medicine prescribed by doctors.
5. Interesting Facts
    • Your body has about 100,000 miles of blood vessels!
    • Your kidneys cleanse all the blood in your body every 50 minutes or 1,800 quarts of blood a day!
    • The heart beats around 3 billion times in the average person's life
    • About 8 million blood cells die in the human body every second, and the same number are born each second
    • Red blood cells may live for about 4 months circulating throughout the body, feeding the 60 trillion other body cells
    • It takes about 20 seconds for a red blood cell to circle the whole body

capillary_vein.jpg
circulatory system diagram

circulatory-system.jpg
Respiratory System - Jessica & AyakoRespiratory System

What it Does:

The respiratory system is responsible for supplying oxygen to the blood and organs through inhaling , while also removing the dangerous carbon dioxide from blood through exhaling.

What it’s Made Of:

· Nose—preferred entrance for air to enter the respiratory system
· Throat—collects incoming air from nose/mouth and sends it downward to the
trachea
· Windpipe (or trachea)—passage leading from the throat to the lungs
· Bronchial tubes—the trachea branches into two bronchial tubes, one entering each lung
· Cilia—small hairs that line the bronchial tubes; they catch germs and foreign particles, keeping them out of the lungs
· Right/Left lobes—sections of the lungs; a lobe resembles a balloon filled with spongy tissue; Right lung is divided into 3 lobes, while the left lung only has 2
· Pleura—2 membranes that cover each lobe of the lungs; separates the lungs from the chest wall
· Bronchioles—smallest divisions of bronchial tubes
· Alveoli—tiny air sacs at the ends of the bronchioles, lined with capillaries
· Capillaries—blood vessels located in the alveoli
· Pulmonary Artery—supplies blood to the capillaries
· Pulmonary Vein—takes blood away from the capillaries
· Diaphragm—strong wall of muscle separating the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity; when it moves downward, suction is created in the chest cavity, air is breathed in, and the lungs can expand
What it Looks Like:
Respiratory_System.jpg

How it Works:

· The diaphragm contracts (moves downward), allowing more room in the chest cavity
· Oxygen-rich air enters through the nose or mouth
· The air travels through the larynx (or voice box) and down the trachea (or windpipe)
· The trachea is split into two bronchial tubes, one entering each lung; air travels down through these tubes
· The bronchial tubes then split into thousands of tiny tubes (bronchioles) and the air travels down through these
· At the end of the bronchioles, the air enters tiny, capillary-lined air sacs called alveoli (capillaries are small blood vessels that are linked to other major arteries)
· The pulmonary artery brings carbon dioxide-rich blood to the capillaries and exchanges this poisonous gas for the vital oxygen in the air
· The oxygen-rich blood travels out through the pulmonary vein and is carried away to various parts of the body
· The diaphragm relaxes and the carbon dioxide follows the reverse path that the oxygen travelled (from the alveoli, through the bronchioles, up the bronchial tubes, up the trachea, through the larynx, and out the nose/mouth) and is exhaled.

What Can Go Wrong:


·
Asthma: Triggers such as pollen, dust, and cigarette smoke cause the bronchial tubes and bronchioles to constrict, leading to shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing. Asthma can generally be treated with prescribed, inhaled medication

·
Common Cold: Most common respiratory infection. There are over 200 different viruses that cause this inflammation of the upper respiratory tract.

·
Cystic Fibrosis: The mucous that is already in the airways becomes thick, limiting the space inside the airways, causing coughing and increasing the risk of infection in the lungs. There are some dietary and breathing treatments available, but there is no cure.

·
Lung Cancer: Usually caused by smoking, lung cancer usually develops in the epithelium (thin membranes that cover the insides of the airways) of the bronchial tubes and bronchioles. Some common forms of treatment are surgery (to remove the cancerous areas), chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
Did You Know?
· In each lung there are approximately 300 million alveoli.
· The average person takes around 20,000 breaths each day.
· By the time you are 70, you will have taken at least 600 million breaths.
· Asthma is the #1 reason why young children chronically miss school.
· The left lung is slightly smaller than the right lung; this way, there is room for the heart to sit in between the lungs.





Integumentary System (Skin) - Cody & Joel
1) Vocabulary/Key Concepts:
a. Integumentary System - Also referred to as the Cutaneous System, consists of your skin, nails, hair, and the associated glands that have ducts that open onto the surface of the skin (sweat and oil glands).
b. Integument– A tough outer protective layer, therefore the organs covering your body are called the Integumentary System.
c. Turgor– The motility, elasticity, and texture of the skin.
d. Dermatology – The field of medicine practice that involves the study of the Integumentary System.
e. Cutaneous Senses – The sensory of warmth, cold, touch, and pain of your skin.
f. Skin Pores – Release sweat. The sweat glands secrete sweat onto the surface of the skin, and the evaporation of this sweat can cool us down.
g. Skin Color – Is determined by the amount of the pigment melanin in one’s skin. Melanin is used to absorb harmful UV rays. A suntan consists of extra melanin produced in response to exposure to these UV rays.
h. Sebaceous Glands – Secrete oil that helps to waterproof the skin. You wash this grease off when you wash your hair.
i. Skin Layers - There are three layers of the skin. The Epidermis is the outermost layer, the Dermis is the middle layer, and the Hypodermis, or Subcutaneous layer, is the innermost layer.
2) Structure & Design:
The Integumentary System is the organ surrounding the body and all of its appendages. The skin has three layers: the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis. 8912.jpg
The parts of the nail are numerous, but basic parts are labeled in this diagram: c2e8e-healthy_finger_nails_diagram.jpg

3) Functions:
The Integumentary System’s functions are toL
a. Waterproof the skin
b. Protect and Cushion the Deeper Tissue
c. Excrete Wastes
d. Absorb Harmful UV Rays
e. Regulate Temperature, and to
f. Sense touch, warmth, cold, and pain.

4) Problems That Can Occur:
Ephelides are the technical name for freckles. These are small, flat areas of brown melanin-producing cells.
A Bulla is a fluid-filled lesion larger than 1 cm that is thin. (Walled and ruptures easily) ex. Blister or Contact Dermatisis
An abnormal growth of hair, particularly in places where there is no hair is a Hirsutism. These areas are (particularly in women) – the face, arms, back, and chest.
A secondary skin lesion that consists of a thickened, dried area from broken pustules or vesicles is a Crust. Infectious types of crust are impetigo and varicella. A noninfectious type is a scab.
Some diseases of the Integumentary system – Acne, Dandruff, and Seborrhea.
A Sunburn.

5) Fun Facts:
Every minute 30,000 - 40,000 dead skin cells fall off or are sloughed off your body.
In one month, your body will have a whole new layer of skin. An all new you every month!
An adult will have more than 20 square feet of skin.
You will shed about 40 pounds of skin during your lifetime.



Excretory System - Daniel & Sara
colon.jpg
colon.jpg

colon.jpg

VOCAB:
Large Intestine
-Colon- part of the large intestine that is starts at the lower right hand side. it digests food further after the small intestine.
-Cecum- connects the large intestine to the small intestine and is the starting of the colon.
-Appendix- is a little pouch that is connected to the cecum that is arround 10cm long and has no known function.
-Rectum- about 12 cm long, located second to last in the excretory system.
-Anal Canal- the very last element and where the waste is finally expelled.
Kidneys- part of the urinary tract and on both sides of the spine they are reddish-brown and allow only certain amounts of salt and water to go through your body and filter the blood.
Ureters- part of the urinary tract that connect and carry urine form the kidneys to the bladder.
Urinary Bladder- part of the urinary tract where pee Is stored before is passed. (connected to the Kidneys).

The Function of the Excretory system:
The system is concerned with excretion of the body. There are many parts of excretion such as waste and sweat. The primary role is forming and eliminating urine from the body. Urine is the fluid waste excreted by the kidneys. Urine continues to collect in the bladder until the bladder is filled. Then, the muscles of the bladder squeeze out the urine which is excreted from the body.


Basic Structure of the Excretory System:
The Kidneys take the liquids inside the body move them down through the Ureters and down to the Bladder and from there they are released.
The solid waste that must be desposed of traveled from the Small Intestine, through the Cecum, past the Apendix, through the Colon, through the Rectum and lastly, out the Anal Canal.

kidney.jpg
kidney.jpg

kidney.jpg

Problems that can Occur:

Cancer- Cancer such as bladder cancer or kidney cancer. Bladder cancer is where the bladder grows uncontrollably causing tumors. The exact cause of bladder cancer is unknown. Kidney cancer is where the kidneys grow uncontrollably and grow tumors and the exact cause is unknown.
Urinary Tract Infections- They are inflammations of the urinary tract caused by a bacterial infection.
Kidney Stones- Kidney stones are solid accumulations or material that form in the tubal system of the kidneys. They cause problems by blocking the urine flow.

Cancer- Colon cancer is popular within both men and women
Urinary Tract Infections- Bacteria infects the tract system and causes you to need to go to the bathroom frequently.
Kidney Stones- Calcium deposits build up "stones" that are painfull to pass.

Flatulence (gas)-
caused by bacteria in system and eating gassy foods.

Diarrhea-
Depends on what you eat and ammount of bacteria in system

Constipation-
System gets backed up and dose not despose of waste properly.




Works Cited

Nagel, Rob. "Excratory System". Body by Design . Gale Group, 2000.


Lerner, Lee, Wilmoth, Lerner. World of Anatomy and Phisiology . 2 vols. Farmington Hills: Thompson Gale, 2002.

To Keep this system healthy:
The way to keep this system healthy is living a healthy lifestyle including getting enough sleep, drinking healthy amounts of water, reducing your amount of stress., not smoking,following a proper diet and exercising regularly.
Drinking enough water makes it so you produce enough urine to flush out all bacteria and anything else your body doesn't need.


Endocrine System - Peyton & Josh
Vocabulary

The nine major glands that make up the endocrine system are the Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroids, Adrenal, Pancreas, and the reproductive glands which include the testes and ovaries
  • Endocrine system- uses blood to send hormones to the cells in the body
  • Hormones- chemical messengers
  • Hypothalamus- control center of all autonomic regulatory in the body
  • Pituitary gland- controls functions of other endocrine systems
  • Pineal gland- comminicates information about environmental lighting to other parts of the body
  • Thyroid gland- regulates the body's metabolism
  • Parathyroids- controls calcium within the blood
  • Adrenal gland- produces hormones necessary for fluid and electrolyte balance in the body
  • Pancreas- produces insulin which helps regulate the body's blood sugar levels


external image P_endocrine-system.gif
Functions
    • Endocrine system works with the nervous system
    • It uses hormones to send messages to other cells in the body and blood
    • Hormones affect energy control, sugar and insulin balance, water, and salt balance
    • Some hormones take a long period of time to change such as a child's growth or sexual maturity
    • Hormones can either speed up or slow down an organ by sending chemical messages
    • Hormones can create dramatic responces in your body which triggers your emotions



Problems that can occur
When one or more of the glands in your body are not funtioning properly it can affect other systems in your body
    • If too much or not enough is released to the pituitary gland the person's size will be negatively affected.
    • When a persons thyroid gland is not working properly the individual will experience different syptoms.; if not enough hormone is produced hypothyroidism occurs, where if too much is produced hyperthyroidism occurs.
    • Diabetes is a disease where the body cannot utilize the sugar that it needs properly. This has do do with the release and use of insulin.


Interesting Facts

    • There are 30 hormones in the human body
    • The Hypothalamus makes you feel hunger or thirst
    • The doctor that helps you with your endocrine system is called an endocrinologist
    • The pituitary gland controls hormone growth